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# 05-树9 Huffman Codes

2年前 (2019-11-11) 351次浏览

In 1953, David A. Huffman published his paper “A Method for the Construction of Minimum-Redundancy Codes”, and hence printed his name in the history of computer science. As a professor who gives the final exam problem on Huffman codes, I am encountering a big problem: the Huffman codes are NOT unique. For example, given a string “aaaxuaxz”, we can observe that the frequencies of the characters ‘a’, ‘x’, ‘u’ and ‘z’ are 4, 2, 1 and 1, respectively. We may either encode the symbols as {‘a’=0, ‘x’=10, ‘u’=110, ‘z’=111}, or in another way as {‘a’=1, ‘x’=01, ‘u’=001, ‘z’=000}, both compress the string into 14 bits. Another set of code can be given as {‘a’=0, ‘x’=11, ‘u’=100, ‘z’=101}, but {‘a’=0, ‘x’=01, ‘u’=011, ‘z’=001} is NOT correct since “aaaxuaxz” and “aazuaxax” can both be decoded from the code 00001011001001. The students are submitting all kinds of codes, and I need a computer program to help me determine which ones are correct and which ones are not.

Input Specification:
Each input file contains one test case. For each case, the first line gives an integer N (2≤N≤63), then followed by a line that contains all the N distinct characters and their frequencies in the following format:

c f c f … c[N] f[N]
where c[i] is a character chosen from {‘0’ – ‘9’, ‘a’ – ‘z’, ‘A’ – ‘Z’, ‘_’}, and f[i] is the frequency of c[i] and is an integer no more than 1000. The next line gives a positive integer M (≤1000), then followed by M student submissions. Each student submission consists of N lines, each in the format:

c[i] code[i]
where c[i] is the i-th character and code[i] is an non-empty string of no more than 63 ‘0’s and ‘1’s.

Output Specification:
For each test case, print in each line either “Yes” if the student’s submission is correct, or “No” if not.

Note: The optimal solution is not necessarily generated by Huffman algorithm. Any prefix code with code length being optimal is considered correct.

Sample Input:
7
A 1 B 1 C 1 D 3 E 3 F 6 G 6
4
A 00000
B 00001
C 0001
D 001
E 01
F 10
G 11
A 01010
B 01011
C 0100
D 011
E 10
F 11
G 00
A 000
B 001
C 010
D 011
E 100
F 101
G 110
A 00000
B 00001
C 0001
D 001
E 00
F 10
G 11
Sample Output:
Yes
Yes
No
No 